Application of the Theory

Faye Glenn Abdellah's Typology of Twenty-One Nursing Problems has the most potent effect in my nursing career. It was truly a great influenced for me and all other nurses out there, serving people even beyond our abilities. Indeed, Nursing is a complete humanitarian service. It is an all-encompassing service that is based on discipline that serves the individual, sick or well.

Being in this noble profession for two years now, i have been utilizing her theory because it helped me a lot in improving my problem-solving techniques. As a nurse, problem-solving is an everyday practice. We have to work out the problems being faced by our clients and know how to prioritize them according to their needs.  This theory also became the guidelines for nurses to appropriately render  nursing care at its best. It also has a significant contribution to nursing education and research as well.

Abdellah's theory has been and will be a great help for nurses like me in the service for humanity through CARE.

Neil Allan C. Gamueta, RN
MAN Student

Application of the theory

Dr. Abdellah 's typology of 21 nursing problems is a conceptual model mainly concerned with patient 's needs and the role of nurses in problem identification using a problem analysis approach . Abdellah 's work is classified under the nursing philosophy category in the sense that her work is based on analysis , rationalization , research and logical argument instead of using experiential methods . It can be asserted that Abdellah 's model can be described as inductive since she derived observations from previous studies which became the basis for her conceptualization . These statements are not experimental in nature because such statements based on goal , traditions and /or values cannot be tested for its correctness or wrongness (Marriner-Tomey , 1994 , hence the classification of Dr . Abdellah 's model as philosophical.

Application to Nursing Practice
Using the scientific foundation of the theory will empower the nurse to give meaning to each and every nursing action that he/ she will perform. Using the 21 nursing problems technique, the clinical practitioner could assess the patient, make a nursing diagnosis and plan interventions. Abdellah’s main goal is the improvement of the nursing education. She believed that as the education of nurses improves, nursing practice improves as well. It transformed the focus of the profession from being “disease-centered” to “patient-centered.” The patient-centered approach was constructed to be useful to nursing practice as it helped bring structure and organization to what was often been a disorganized collection of nursing care experiences. Individual’s needs were the basis of the nursing problem, a typology of nursing treatment and nursing goals were formulated which served as a basis for determining and organizing nursing care. Client centered care emphasizes the principle that every nursing goal should be geared towards treating the patient and not just the mere illness.
Application to Nursing Research
Research played a great part in the selection of the 21 problem classifications. Her researches were actually the major strengths of her works. In fact, her framework continues to stimulate research about the role and responsibilities of the nurse. The broad nature of the concepts in her framework offers opportunities to identify directional relationships in nursing interventions. Her theories continue to guide researchers to focus on the body of nursing knowledge itself, the identification of patient problems, the organization of nursing interventions, the improvement of nursing education, and the structure of the curriculum. The extensive research done regarding the patient’s needs and problems has served as a foundation for the development of what is now known as nursing diagnoses. The typology utilized by Abdellah became the root for cultivating the nursing care model and was then employed for setting up the staffing outline in clinical settings.
Application to Nursing Education
It was during 1950’s when Abdellah’s theory were formulated and developed, thus, providing structure to the nursing curriculum. Abdellah’s extraordinary researches, publications and other works and her worldwide reputation have been instrumental in disseminating the patient-centered approach to educational programs around the world.Abdellah’s typology of 21 nursing problems had the most compelling effect on the educational system. Educators came to the realization that revisions are of prime importance if nurses were to become self-governing. They saw that the biggest flaw in the profession was the absence or limited base of a scientific body of knowledge unique to nursing. The typology satisfied this void and gave the most crucial and timely opportunity to move away from the medical replica of cultivating nurses. Professors and educators realized the importance of client centered care rather than focusing on medical interventions. Nursing education then slowly deviated its concentration from the complex, medical concepts, into exercising better attention to the client as the primary concern.
Relevance of Theory (from an MS nurse point of view)
To maintain good hygiene and physical comfort-For clients who are totally dependent and require total hygiene care such as clients with alteration in level of sensorium, a complete bed bath is rendered. While bathing the client, exposing only the areas being bathed, closing the door or pulling room curtains around the bathing area promote physical comfort.To promote safety through prevention of accident, injury, or other trauma- CVA patient who is restless, raising of side rails is very important to prevent falls and injuries. Stroke patients are at risk for falls due to altered level of consciousness. To facilitate the maintenance of nutrition of all body cells- placing a nasogastric tube for patients who suffered from CVA or dysphagia, of course with the order of the physician, can in some way aid in providing patient’s nutrition. To facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen to all body cells- for patient complaining of difficulty of breathing, delivery of oxygen can be done with the use of nasal cannula or face mask.
To further appreciate the application of Faye Abdellah to a different setting of nursing practice, these are presented...
According to Abdellah's Twenty-One Nursing Problems theory of nursing, "Nursing is based on an art and science that moulds the attitudes, intellectual competencies, and technical skills of the individual nurse into the desire and ability to help people, sick or well, cope with their health needs."
There are specific characteristics identifiable in the Twenty-One Nursing Problems. The theory has interrelated the concepts of health, nursing problems, and problem-solving. Problem-solving is an activity that is inherently logical in nature. The framework focuses on nursing practice and individual patients.
I work as a Psychitaric Nurse in a Mental Health Institution so let me share to you where I can apply Abdellah’s theory to real life scenario. 
1. To maintain good hygiene and physical comfort. 

Patients are bathed every morning after waking up and in the government hospital, charity ward, they are altogether taking a bath assisted by the nurses. After that, they are provided by hospital gowns to keep them clean.
2. To promote optimal activity: exercise, rest, and sleep.
Every morning, they are encouraged to exercise altogether and one patient leads the rest to perform daily workout like stretching or dance class. After taking their night medications, they are allowed to rest and sleep. As a nurse, I keep a calm and quiet environment for them to have a good sleep.
3. To promote safety through prevention of accident, injury, or other trauma and through the prevention of the spread of infection.
As many patients stay together in one single room in a ward, we prevent spread of infection by isolating patients with communicable diseases like scabies. We always maintain safety precautions because patients with mental illness are likely to have suicidal, homicidal and escape precautions therefore as a nurse you should be aware of their happenings all the time.
4. To maintain good body mechanics and prevent and correct deformity.
With patients with bed sores, good body mechanics is very important so we turn the patient from side to side or change position to prevent immobility and pressure.
5. To facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen to all body cells.
If a patient verbalizes difficulty of breathing and upon assessment he is grasping for air, after proper referral we attach supply of oxygen via nasal cannula or face mask.
6. To facilitate the maintenance of nutrition of all body cells.
Patients eat altogether in a pantry where they are supplied with the same tray of food. For patients who eat very fast, they are prone to choking so you have to supervise their feeding and divide large pieces of food into small pieces. With patients who don’t want to eat, we feed them. You don’t want patients to be malnourished due to poor food intake.
7. To facilitate the maintenance of elimination.
Patients who have difficulty in elimination, we provide dietary supplements like fiber-rich foods for those with constipation. Most disturbed patients are with restraints so they just urinate on the floor, you have to change their clothes to prevent infection.
8. To facilitate the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance.
Some patients have electrolyte imbalance so we hook intravenous fluids like PNSS or D5LR to maintain their electrolytes in balance.
9. To recognize the physiological responses of the body to disease conditions—pathological, physiological, and compensatory.
If a patient has a disease like heart problem, in a psychiatric ward, he is referred at the Infirmary to pave way to his medical condition. There, he is given medications and proper treatment.
10. To facilitate the maintenance of regulatory mechanisms and functions.
For a patient with hallucinations like auditory and visual, it is therapeutic to present reality.
11. To facilitate the maintenance of sensory function.
When a patient is admitted who is already deaf and mute, we communicate to them by body language to maintain their basic need despite of inadequacy to the sensory function.
12. To identify and accept positive and negative expressions, feelings, and reactions.
Most patients are already confined for long period of time from months to years and talking with them therapeutically makes them ventilate their feelings both positive and negative.
13. To identify and accept interrelatedness of emotions and organic illness.
Most patients complain somatic complaints but as a psychiatric nurse, you should distinguish one from malingering. With proper assessment and keen observation, you can relate whether it is true or not.
14. To facilitate the maintenance of effective verbal and nonverbal communication.
Different patients converse in the way they are diagnosed. With Bipolar patients, one time they are talkative (manic stage) and then at one moment they are very quiet (depressed stage). We intervene through both verbal and nonverbal ways so that patients would still comply.
15. To promote the development of productive interpersonal relationships.
Families and relatives are very effective support system for patients who are confined in a psychiatric institution, allow for their private time together when family visits.
16. To facilitate progress toward achievement of personal spiritual goals
With Catholic patients, we assist them every Sunday to attend Holy Mass at the Chapel located inside the hospital. Respect also other patient’s different way of worship and faith.
17. To create and/or maintain a therapeutic environment.
Maintaining a therapeutic environment is very crucial for a mental institution. By communicating with them from time to time, you practice an area for ventilation of feelings and emotions.
18. To facilitate awareness of self as an individual with varying physical, emotional, and developmental needs.
Different wards and pavilions in the hospital cater different patients. With a ward which caters all male patients, we nurses respect their human needs like giving them privacy when they need to.
19. To accept the optimum possible goals in the light of limitations, physical, and emotional.
Different patients have individualized needs therefore optimum goals is ought to achieve in all of them. For example a patient who is withdrawn, the goal is for him to be participative to divert attention. Remotivation therapy is provided.
20. To use community resources as an aid in resolving problems arising from illness.
One problem of confinement for long periods is the distance of the family from the patients. We extend the community resources to social workers to find the families of vagrant patients who just came from the streets and no family to accept them.
21. To understand the role of social problems as influencing factors in the cause of illness.
Many psychiatric illness accounts to the social problems that predispose most of the patients to have mental problems, therefore, we as nurses, have to understand and accept the role of society as a huge effect to the patients. Conducting health education and health teachings to the family and as well as to the community.

As a nurse who is working in surgical and trauma unit, I don't have any idea that I experienced and applied Faye Abdellah Theory on my practice.

The moment that I admit my patient Abdellah's theory is working. Most of these patient's are irritable and they don't want to be disturbed specially if they are "VIP". My role as a nurse is to promote and develop a productive interpersonal relationship to gain their trust and approval.

I remember, I have a transfer-in patient from other unit who is post T11-L2 USS Fixation, Bilateral Mandible Fixation and ORIF Right Femur. She is 25 years old, mother of 3 young boys. In her history it is noted that she is a back passenger of a 4 wheel drive car without seatbelt and sustained polytrauma after that accident.

So how did I apply Abdellah's theory in taking care of Ms. HM? The moment she was transferred to our unit, I gave her my smile and touch which means that she is in good hands. I kept her comfortable on her bed, giving the access to her call bell and orient her how to use her new electric bed. I encouraged her to verbalize any complain or discomfort and informed her that she can just press the bell and I will be at her room anytime. I ordered mashed and fluid diet for her because she can't widely open her mouth due to surgery but she can tolerate food. Oral hygiene was given. She complained of pain most of the time, proper body alignment and mobilization in bed was done. Ordered analgesic was given also according to her pain score. Catheter care was done to avoid urinary tract infection and promote physical comfort. I learned from her that she didn't move her bowel for 4 days. I encourage her to increase fluid intake and helped her to move in her bed. Informed her doctor regarding the problem, Fleet Enema and laxative was ordered and she passed stool in bed pan.

A medical report was given to her husband to facilitate processing of her insurance claim.

This is just a part of my routine care for this patient; I am doing this because based on my knowledge this is the right and effective way to do it till the time that I read again Abdellah's theory. I was amazed and grateful at the same time that someone like her did her contribution for effective management of my patient.

At this time while I am writing this, Ms. HM able to stand out of bed with lumbar spine with the help of physiotherapist, her Foley catheter was removed and she can tolerate small amount of solid food.

Marlene R. Estrella, Rashid Hospital, Dubai


"Nursing is based on an art and science that molds the attitudes,intellectual competencies, and technical skills of the individual nurse into the desire and ability to help people, sick or well, cope with their health needs" - as Nurses this is what we are and what we ought to be. 
As a staff nurse of Female Medical Ward, Faye Abdellah's theory has guided me in many ways. Firstly, meeting the needs that are basic to all patients such as maintaining hygiene, physical comfort preventing further injury and preventing spread of infection, are always considered as our goals whenever a patient is admitted considering his/her capabilities to full recovery. 

Secondly, is caring for total dependent patients, such as our two ventilated patients that are totally dependent in our care such as in bathing, feeding, suctioning, turning to sides. As care providers, its our responsibilty to give the care they deserve, although we all know that only machine is keeping them alive, their choice to continue to live despite of their situation means a lot for us. The evidence of our care, on how we maintain their sustenal care needs is observed to our 6 years ventilated patient who never developed bedsore at all. 

Lastly, as a Nurse working in another country wherein language, culture and tradition is totally different from my native land, therefore I have to be flexible enough to gain knowledge on how to deal with this kind of situation. Learning their language such as Arabic is really important and it helped me a lot in interacting with most of the patients who can't speak English at all. In this way, I can understand their feelings and at the same time I can intervene appropriately because I have identified their problems.Apart from that, understanding and adapting to their culture and traditions would definitely make me aware of the different factors affecting health situations of the people here in UAE. That's how Faye Abdellah wants us to try, to care for everyone, even for the people we don't know, in any situations, we always face the challenge and always make a CHANGE.. That is the essence of being a NURSE :)

Meilani U. Faustino Faraon
Khorfakkan Hospital



National Womens's Hall of Fame, 

Strength and Limitations

Abdellah’s theory has interrelated the concepts of health, nursing problems, and problem solving as she attempts to create a different way of viewing nursing phenomenon. The problem solving approach can easily be used by practitioners to guide various activities within their practice. This is true when considering nursing practice that deals with clients who have specific needs and specific nursing problems. 
However, framework seems to focus quite heavily on nursing practice and individuals. This somewhat limit the ability to generalize although the problem solving approach is readily generalizable to clients with specific health needs and specific nursing. 
One of the most important questions that arise when considering her work is the role of client within the framework. This question could generate hypothesis for testing and thus demonstrates the ability of Abdellah’s work to generate hypothesis for testing.

Theoretical assertions

Faye Glenn Abdellah being the pioneer in nursing research, she focused on the following in her nursing theory:

1. Better nursing care after evidence-based researches
2. Nursing is patient centered which focuses on the health needs of the individual
3. 21 Nursing problems as the guidelines in nursing care
4. To include family of the patient in the nursing care plan

We find all of these assertions in our practice as nurses. We focus on the health needs of our patient and at the same time we include the family or primary caregiver in the care plan. Our interventions are based on the identified nursing problems. These should be evidence-based practices to assure the quality and safe outcomes.


Major Concepts of The Theory


family.jpgAbdellah describes people as having physical, emotional, and sociological needs. 

These needs may overt, consisting of largely physical needs, or covert, such as emotional and social needs.

Patient is described as the only justification for the existence of nursing.

Individuals (and families) are the recipients of nursing.

Health, or achieving of it, is the purpose of nursing services.


In Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing, Abdellah describes health as a state mutually exclusive of illness.

Although Abdellah does not give a definition of health, she speaks to “total health needs” and “a healthy state of mind and body” in her description of nursing as a comprehensive service.


Society is included in “planning for optimum health on local, state, national, and international levels”. However, as she further delineated her ideas, the focus of nursing service is clearly the individual.

The environment is the home or community from which patient comes.


man-wheelchair.jpgNursing is a helping profession. In Abdellah’s model, nursing care is doing something to or for the person or providing information to the person with the goals of meeting needs, increasing or restoring self-help ability, or alleviating impairment.

Nursing is broadly grouped into the 21 problem areas to guide care and promote use of nursing judgment.

She considers nursing to be comprehensive service that is based on art and science and aims to help people, sick or well, cope with their health needs.


nurse-stethoscope.jpgNursing problem presented by a client is a condition faced by the client or client’s family that the nurse through the performance of professional functions can assist them to meet . The problem can be either an overt or covert nursing problem.

An overt nursing problem is an apparent condition faced by the patient or family, which the nurse can assist him or them to meet through the performance of her professional functions.

The covert nursing problem is a concealed or hidden condition faced, by the patient or family, which the nurse can assist him or them to meet through the performance of her professional functions

In her attempt to bring nursing practice into its proper relationship with restorative and preventive measures for meeting total client needs, she seems to swing the pendulum to the opposite pole, from the disease orientation to nursing orientation, while leaving the client somewhere in the middle.


nurse-doctor.jpgThe problem solving process involves identifying the problem, selecting pertinent data, formulating hypothesis, testing hypothesis through the collection of data, and revising hypothesis where necessary on the basis of conclusions obtained from the data.


George Julia B. Nursing theories: The base of professional nursing practice 3rd edition. Norwalk, CN: Appleton and Lange; 1990.

Abdellah, F.G.). The Nature of Nursing Science. In L.H. Nicholl (Ed.), Perspectives in Nursing Theory. Boston: Little, Brown, 1986.

Key Concepts and Model


Faye Abdellah proposed a classificatory framework for identifying nursing problems, based on her idea that nursing is basically oriented to meeting an individual client’s total health needs. Her major effort was to differentiate nursing from medicine and disease orientation. Abdellah’s patient-centered approach to nursing was developed inductively from her practice and is considered a human needs theory. Although it was intended to guide care of those in the hospital, it also has relevance for nursing care in community settings. Abdellah was clearly promoting the image of the nurse who was not only kind and caring, but also intelligent, competent, and technically well prepared to provide service to the patient.


1. To maintain good hygiene and physical comfort.
2. To promote optimal activity: exercise, rest, and sleep.
3. To promote safety through prevention of accident, injury, or other trauma and through the prevention of the spread of infection.
4. To maintain good body mechanics and prevent and correct deformity.
5. To facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen to all body cells.
6. To facilitate the maintenance of nutrition of all body cells.
7. To facilitate the maintenance of elimination.
8. To facilitate the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance.
9. To recognize the physiological responses of the body to disease conditions, pathological, physiological, and compensatory.
10. To facilitate the maintenance of regulatory mechanisms and functions.
11. To facilitate the maintenance of sensory function.
12. To identify and accept positive and negative expressions, feelings, and reactions.
13. To identify and accept interrelatedness of emotions and organic illness.
14. To facilitate the maintenance of effective verbal and nonverbal communication.
15. To promote the development of productive interpersonal relationships.
16. To facilitate progress toward achievement of personal spiritual goals
17. To create and/or maintain a therapeutic environment.
18. To facilitate awareness of self as an individual with varying physical, emotional, and developmental needs.
19. To accept the optimum possible goals in the light of limitations, physical, and emotional.
20. To use community resources as an aid in resolving problems arising from illness.
21. To understand the role of social problems as influencing factors in the cause of illness

These 21 nursing problems became the base of Abdellah’s base theory.  These were her work together w/ Levine in 1954 by using the work of several studies , they classified medical diagnoses in small hospitals into 58 categories.  They were also helped by 40 schools of nursing in the development of the base theory.


George Julia B. Nursing theories: The base of professional nursing practice 3rd edition. Norwalk, CN: Appleton and Lange; 1990.

George, J. (2002). Nursing Theories: The Base for Professional Nursing Practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.


“We cannot wait for the world to change…Those of us with intelligence, purpose, and vision must take the lead and change the world. Let us move forward together! I promise never to rest until my work has been completed!” –Faye Abdellah

Faye Glenn Abdellah was born on March 13, 1919 in New York to a father of Algerian heritage and Scottish mother. Her family subsequently moved to New Jersey where she attended high school.

On May 6, 1937, she and her brother witness the explosion and destruction of the dirigible HINDENBURG. The fire subsequent to the ignited hydrogen killed many people. On an interview, she narrated, “Having no training in what to do in an emergency situation, I could only view the tragedy of the poor scorched victims exiting the dirigible. It was then that I decided that I would never again be powerless to assist when people were in so dire a need for assistance. It was at that moment that I thought that I’ve got to do something; I’ve got to become a nurse."


Following high school, she started her nursing program in Fitkin Memorial Hospital School of Nursing in Neptune, New Jersey wherein she received the nursing diploma in 1942. From 1942-1944, she studied Chemistry in Rutgers University, and then furthered her education at the Teacher’s College of Columbia university in New York City in which she received her Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts and Doctor of Education Degrees. Concomitantly, she worked as a health nurse at a private school. Her first administrative position was on the faculty of Yale University from 1945-1949.

In 1949, she met Lucile Petry Leone who was the first Nurse Officer and decided to join the Public Health Service. Her first assignment was with the division of nursing that focused on research and studies. They perform studies with numerous hospitals to improve nursing practice.

During the wartime, the Public Health Service became a part of the Navy and she was assigned to work with the Korean people during the Korean War years. As a senior officer, she was alternatively assigned to Japan, China, Russia, Australia, and the Scandinavian countries to identify the role of the Public Health Service in dealing with various health problems. She was able to assist and initiate, in an advisory role, numerous studies in those countries.


She had a forty-year career as a Commissioned Officer in the United States Public Health Service, where she served as the Chief Nurse Officer: achieved the rank of a two star Flag Officer, the first nurse in any Service to do so; functioned as Deputy Surgeon General under the tenure of VADM C. Everett Koop: and after retirement founded the only federal graduate school of nursing. Her name is universally synonymous with the highest ideals and values of the nursing profession and she has been twice honored on the floor of the United States Senate. 

As the first nurse and the first woman to serve as Deputy Surgeon General, Dr. Abdellah developed educational materials in many key areas of public health, including AIDS, the mentally handicapped, violence, hospice care, smoking cessation, alcoholism, and drug addiction. Dr. Abdellah, after teaching at several prestigious universities, founded the Graduate School of Nursing at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and served as the school's first dean. Beyond the classroom, Dr. Abdellah presented workshops around the world on nursing research and nursing care.

Dr. Abdellah's work has been recognized with 77 professional and academic honors, including the prestigious Allied Signal Award for her pioneering research in aging. She is also the recipient of eleven honorary degrees. As a leader in health care, she has helped transform the practice of nursing and raised its standards by introducing scientific research into nursing and patient care. Her leadership, her publications, and her accomplishments have set a new standard for nursing and for women in the health care field.

Faye Glenn Abdellah published over 150 peer-reviewed papers, many of them in Military Medicine, and also a number of books which have been translated into six foreign languages. 

Here are the lists of some of her popular works:
  • Better patient care through nursing research 
    by Faye G Abdellah ( Book ) 21 editions published between 1964 and 1986 in English and held by 738 libraries worldwide 
  • Preparing nursing research for the 21st century : evolution, methodologies, challenges 
    by Faye G Abdellah ( Book ) 4 editions published between 1994 and 1996 in English and held by 447 libraries worldwide 
  • New directions in patient-centered nursing; guidelines for systems of service, education, and research 
    ( Book ) 6 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 406 libraries worldwide 
  • Patient-centered approaches to nursing 
    by Faye G Abdellah ( Book ) 10 editions published between 1960 and 1973 in English and Finnish and held by 376 libraries worldwide 
  • Effect of nurse staffing on satisfactions with nursing care: a study of how omissions in nursing services, as perceived by patients and personnel, are influenced by the number of nursing hours available 
    by Faye G Abdellah ( Book ) 1 edition published in 1958 in English and held by 78 libraries worldwide 
  • Patients and personnel speak, a method of studying patient care in hospitals 
    by Faye G Abdellah ( Book ) 1 edition published in 1964 in English and held by 45 libraries worldwide 
  • Appraising the clinical resources in small hospitals 
    by Faye G Abdellah ( Book )  1 edition published in 1954 in English and held by 44 libraries worldwide
  • Nursing's role in the future : the case for health policy decision making 
    by Faye G Abdellah ( Book ) 3 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide 
  • Patients and personnel speak; a method of studying patient care in hospitals 
    by United States ( Book ) 1 edition published in 1957 in English and held by 34 libraries worldwide 
  • Background papers Faye G. Abdellah, Steven R. Moore 
    by Surgeon General's Workshop on Health Promotion and Aging ( Book )  2 editions published between 1988 and 1989 in English and held by 30 libraries worldwide
  • Overview of nursing research, 1955-1968 
    by Faye G Abdellah ( Book ) 1 edition published in 1970 in English and held by 27 libraries worldwide 

  • Up Close and Personal:Interview with Rear Admiral Faye Glenn Abdellah. Military Medicine, Vol. 169, November 2004

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UP Open University is the pioneer institution in distance education and open learning in the Philippines. While its base of operations is in Los BaƱos, Laguna, it is basically a virtual university—providing quality education to students in the country and abroad who are not able to attend conventional colleges and universities due to personal or professional constraints. At the UP Open University, students learn at their own pace and convenience. It has ten learning centers with 19 testing centers all over the country. For its students abroad, it has a virtual learning center to address their academic concerns. Examinations for these students, meanwhile, are either administered online or in the Philippine Consulates.

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